Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function.
They work together to perform a particular task.
– Organs are a collection of 2 or more of the basic body tissue types.
– Multiple tissues adapt as a group to perform specific functions and form structures called ORGANS.
– A collection of 2 or more of the organs that together perform some complex body function.
– The human body is a cooperative of organ systems that are interdependent upon one another, either chemically or physically.
There are 4 main CATEGORIES OF TISSUE:
1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE (covers and lines the body)
2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE (binds and supports other tissue)
3. MUSCLE TISSUE (is involved with movement)
4. NERVOUS TISSUE (forms a communication network)
1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Epithelial tissue is covering and lining tissue, it covers body surfaces in general and lines cavities within the body.
It has little or no intercellular material between its cells.
The free surface of this tissue is exposed either to air or fluid.
The base of the cell is attached to a BASEMENT MEMBRANE (a dense layer of extra cellular material).
The cells are closely joined and may act as a barrier against injury, microbial invasion or fluid loss.
These cells may be specialized for absorption or secretion of chemical solutions.
Epithelial tissue is categorized by the number of LAYERS and the SHAPES of the free surface of the cells.
LAYERS can be:
1. SIMPLE: one layer of cells.
2. STRATIFIED: multiple tiers of cells.
3. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED: one layer that appears multiple because the layers vary in length.
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelial tissue is thin and leaky.
– These cells aid in the exchange of material by diffusion.
– They line blood vessels and air sacs in the lungs.
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS tissue regenerates rapidly near the basement membrane.
– New cell are pushed to the free surface as replacements for the cells that are continually sloughed off.
– Stratified Squamous tissue is located on surfaces that are subject to abrasion, like the outer skin.
– They are like a cytoplasm filled water balloon.
– They are found where secretion or active absorption of substances is an important function, like the intestines, where they secrete digestive juices or absorb nutrients.
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelial tissue line the inner surface of the urinary bladder.
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR epithelial tissue line the nasal passage.
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL epithelial tissue is specializes for secretion.
– They can be found in the kidney tubules, the thyroid gland and the salivary glands.
2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Connective tissue binds and supports other tissue.
It has a sparse cell population scattered throughout an extensive extracellular matrix; it has a lot of intercellular material between its cells.
The matrix contains long, slender rods and connective tissue fiber in a substance similar to soft-set gelatin.
This fiber helps connective tissue to do its job, to directly or indirectly connect body parts together.
3 types of FIBERS make up the various types of connective tissue:
1. COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
– They are bundles of fibers containing 3 collagen fibers each.
– These fibers are strong and resist stretching.
– The parallel lines on the palm of your hand are collagen bundles.
2. ELASTIC FIBERS
– They are long threads of the protein, elastin.
– If stretched, this tissue can return to its original shape.
3. RETICULAR FIBERS
– They are branched and tightly woven.
– They join connective tissue to neighboring tissue.
There are 6 CATEGORIES of connective tissue:
1. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
– Contains all 3 fiber types; collagen, elastin and reticular.
– Holds organs in place and attaches the epithelium to underlying tissue.
– Contains 2 types of cells:
1. FIBROBLASTS: secrete proteins of extracellular fibers, like collagen.
2. MACROPHAGES: act as the “attack dogs” of the body’s immune system.
2. ADIPOSE TISSUE
– It is a loose connective tissue that is specialized to store fat.
– The fat is stored in adipose cells distributed throughout its matrix.
– Each adipose cell stores one fat droplet, which can vary in size.
– The stored fat insulates the body and is used for fuel when needed.
3. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
– Large numbers of collagenous fibers in parallel bundles makes this tissue very dense.
– This density gives it the great strength needed for tendons (to attach muscle to the bone) and ligaments (to attach bone together at joints).
– It is the strong and flexible connective tissue found in the skeleton of all vertebrate embryos.
– Most vertebrates convert the cartilage to bone, but they retain cartilage in the nose, ears and trachea.
– It is composed of collagenous fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate (a protein-carbohydrate).
– Bone is hard, but not brittle or completely solid.
– It is mineralized connective tissue.
– OSTEOBLASTS (bone-forming cells) deposit a matrix of collagen and calcium phosphate that hardens into the mineral hydroxyapatite.
– Blood is the only liquid connective tissue in the body.
-It is a liquid extracellular matrix of plasma containing water, salt and proteins.
– Blood contains RED BLOOD CELLS (that transport oxygen), WHITE BLOOD CELLS (for the immune system) and PLATELETS (which are cell fragments that help in the clotting of blood).
– Blood cells are made in the red marrow of long bones.
– Blood vessels and nerve cells occupy slender canals in the bone tissue call HAVERSAIN CANALS.
3. MUSCLE TISSUE
There is more muscle tissue available in the human body than any other type of tissue.
It consist of long, slender muscle fibers, that contract or shorten to create body movement.
There are 3 types of muscle:
1. SKELETAL MUSCLE
– It is multinucleated and is usually attached to bones by tendons.
– Contractions are voluntary.
– This muscle appears striated under the microscope.
2. SMOOTH MUSCLE
– It is found in the walls of the internal organs and arteries.
– The spindle-shaped, uninucleated cells contract involuntarily.
3. CARDIAC MUSCLE
– It is located only in the wall of the heart.
– The cells are striated, uninucleated, and are joined by intercalated disks.
– Contractions are involuntary.
4. NERVOUS TISSUE
– It is the major tissue for communication and control within the body’s internal environment.
– It is designed to sense stimuli.
– It communicates by means of NEURONS (nerve cells).
– The neuron conducts impulses or bioelectric signals.
– It transmits signals from one part of the organism to another.