The Senses

The human body has 5 major senses; sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, that provide the information about the external environment and transmit stimuli to sensory nerves and on to the brain for processing.

The sense organs allow humans to interact with their surroundings.

Lights, sounds, smells, taste and touch from our surrounding environment are received by the sense organs of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.

Sensory receptors in each of these organs allow the nervous system to collect stimuli from the environment.

The sense organs that collect light from the environment are the EYES.

The human eye is about 2.5 centimeters in diameter.

Most of the eyeball rest in the bony eye socket of the skull. Only about 1/6th of the eye is exposed.

3 pairs of small muscles attach the eye to the eye socket.

Secretions from the tear glands keep the eye moist.

The CONJUNCTIVA, a protective membrane covers the eye.

External parts of the eye include the eyelids, eye lashes and eyebrows.

The eye is made up of many different parts that help to collect, focus and analyze light energy.

The eyeball is divided into 2 chambers that are separated by a lens.

– The front chamber contains the CORNEA, the IRIS and blood vessels.
– The CORNEA focuses the light that enters the eye from the environment.
– The IRIS is the part of the eye that controls the opening to the inner eye. This opening in the inner eye is called the PUPIL.
– The iris can adjust the size that the pupil opens to let in more or less light.
– The pigment in the iris gives the eye its color.
– The chamber is filled with a clear watery fluid called AQUEOUS HUMOR.

– The LENS is transparent and is made of many layers of protein fibers.
– It is about 8 millimeters in diameter.
– The function of the lens is to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye.
– The lens helps the eye adjust the light coming off near or far-away objects.
– The shape of the lens changes; FLATTENS when focusing on DISTANT OBJECTS and THICKENS when focusing on NEAR OBJECTS.
– The ability to bring objects into focus even though they are located at different distances is called ACCOMMODATION.
– Many vision problems are caused by improper functioning of the lenses of the eyes.

– The posterior chamber contains the RETINA, RODS, CONES, and the OPTIC NERVE.
– Light is projected from the lens of the eye to the RETINA, located in the inner eye.
– There are PHOTORECEPTORS found in the retina that convert light energy into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain by way of the OPTIC NERVE.
– 2 types of photoreceptors, CONES and RODS, control the collection of light energy in the retina.
– RODS are good at collecting light energy, even at low levels. They help the eye accommodate in dim light and aid in night vision.
– There are about 120 million rods.
– CONES also collect light, but they can distinguish the different colors of light. They are responsible for color vision.
– There are about 7 million cones.
– The chamber is filled with a jelly-like substance called the VITREOUS HUMOR.

Light enters the eye through the pupil and passes through the cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens and the vitreous humor.

Light reaches the retina, where the signals are set up. These signals are sent to the optic nerve, which carries them to the visual portions of the brain.

The lens turns the image upside down and reverses it from left to right.

The visual centers in the brain correct the inversions and reversals of the lens to make the image right side up.

The eyes collect, focus and send light energy to the BRAIN. The brain interprets and gives meaning to the light energy.

Colors that we can see are really just different wavelengths (or energy amounts) of visible light. The brain associates color with them.

Sound is the movement of air molecules detected by a listening device. The ears detect movement of sound waves in the air.

Ears collect the stimulus of sound in the process of hearing.

The human ear is made up of 3 sections; the OUTER EAR, the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR.

– The outer ear catches sound waves and transports then to the EARDRUM.
– Waves of air molecules first enter the AUDITORY CANAL.
– At the end of the auditory canal is a thin membrane called the EARDRUM or TYMPANUM. The eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear.
– The movement of air molecules causes the ear drum to vibrate.

– The middle ear is a small cavity that is filled with air.
– It lies within the skull bone between the outer and inner ear.
– At the bottom of the middle ear is an opening that leads into a canal.
– The canal, called the EUSTACHIAN TUBE, is a passageway that connects the middle ear to the throat.
– The air movement that caused the eardrum to vibrate now causes 3 tiny bones to vibrate.
– The 3 bones are called the HAMMER, ANVIL and STIRRUP, the smallest bones in the body.
– The vibrations move along these bones until they are transferred from the stirrup to the OVAL WINDOW, a membrane covered opening between the middle and inner ear.

– The inner ear is entirely encased in bone.
– In the inner ear is the CHOCHLEA, a fluid-filled structure. The cochlea has many canals that are lined with hair.
– The vibrations from the stirrup cause waves within the fluid found inside the cochlea. These fluid waves trigger very small, fine HAIR in side the cochlea.
– The stimulation of these hairs in the cochlea produces nerve impulses via the AUDITORY NERVE that are sent to the brain for interpretation.

– The ears also help the human body maintain BALANCE.
– Above the cochlea are 3 structures called the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. These canals contain fluid and are lined with hairs.
– Depending on the position of the body, especially the head, the fluid in these structures will be found in different parts of the canal.
– The hairs lining the inside of these canals will be triggered depending on where the fluid is at any particular moment.
– These hairs then send nerve impulses to the brain, and the brain interprets the position of the body.

– At the base of the middle ear is a tube, the EUSTACHIAN TUBE, that connects the middle ear with the back of the throat.
– This tube maintains atmospheric pressure on both sides of the eardrum.
– If the air pressure on the outside of the eardrum changes, swallowing or opening the mouth either release a buildup of air in the middle ear or sends air into the middle ear to control air pressure balance.
– People often sense this as a “popping” in their middle ear. The popping is the middle ear adjusting to the changing air pressure. This usually happens at high altitudes.

The sense of smell and taste are closely related.

The sense organs for the nose and mouth are designed to collect chemicals from the environment.

Chemical molecules that enter the nose and mouth are collected by receptors in these areas.

The receptors of smell are located in the mucus membranes of the upper part of the nasal cavities.

The receptors in the nose for smell are very small, hair-like nerve endings. When chemicals contact these nerves, impulses are sent to the OLFACTORY NERVE to the brain.

The brain interprets the nerve impulses sent by the various nerve endings as a particular odor.

The sense off smell is closely linked to the sense of taste.

When chemical molecules dissolve in the salvia of the mouth, they trigger TASTE BUDS.

Taste buds are found on the lining of the tongue.


The 5 taste classes are interpreted an certain area of the tongue.

Chemicals that enter the mouth are also interpreted by receptors in the nose. Much of what we taste is really what we smell.

The sense of touch is obtained through millions of nerve endings located throughout the body in the skin.

These nerve endings respond to the stimuli of PRESSURE, PAIN, and TEMPERATURE.

The entire body is covered with nerve endings; however area like the fingers, the toes and the face have more nerves, that are more sensitive to softer stimuli.

The strength of all impulses sent from the skin to the brain are the same.

The strength of a nerve impulse from the skin depends on 2 things.
1. The number of nerve endings in the skin actually stimulated by the touch.
2. The frequency of the impulses that these nerves send to the brain.

This means that the strongest pain of sense of pressure to the skin causes the highest frequency and the greatest number of impulses to be sent to the brain for interpretation and action.


The Immune System

The purpose of the immune system is to protect the body from infection.

Its function is to destroy foreign matter, invading pathogens(germs) and protein.

The immune system is made up of LYMPHOID TISSUE, fluid called LYMPH and WHITE BLOOD CELLS.

The immune system is closely associated with the blood circulatory system. The LYMPHATIC SYSTEM is often called the SECOND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.

The cells of the immune system cluster in LYMPHOID TISSUE. The lymphoid tissues include the ADENOIDS and TONSILS, the THYMUS GLAND, BONE MARROW, the SPLEEN and the LYMPH NODES.

The human body’s defense system is all of the cells, organs and chemicals that protect the body against foreign invaders. Invaders like PATHOGENIC (capable of producing a disease) BACTERIA, FUNGI, VIRUSES and FOREIGN MATTER.

– The body uses a variety of simple defenses to keep disease causing pathogens out. Because these defenses do not target a specific pathogen, they are called non-specific defenses.
– The human body’s first way to protect itself against the invasion of pathogens is to not allow them into the body.
– When the body is attacked by pathogens, it puts up a series of defenses designed to destroy the invader and maintain the body’s health.

– The body’s first way to protect itself is to not let pathogenic invaders into the body. The SKIN is the organ responsible for this protection.
– Clean, unbroken skin is thick enough and tough enough to prevent most pathogenic invaders from penetration it.
– The skin not only provides a physical barrier to many foreign substances, but it also has chemicals on its surface that can destroy many of these pathogens.
– Pathogens that land on the skin usually don’t live long, because the skin has a germicidal quality that inhibits their growth.

– Even with the skins protection, pathogens can make their way into the body, usually through the openings in the skin; the EYES, NOSE, EARS, REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS and MOUTH.
– Most pathogens that enter through the eyes do not live long; they are usually dissolved by LYSOZYME, an enzyme in tears. However some strong pathogens can survive and may cause eye infections, including CONJUNCTIVITIS(pink eye) or TRACOMA.
– Thousands of pathogens enter the mouth daily with our food and drink. Few, however survive to reach the intestines.
– The SALIVA in the mouth is able to kill many of the invaders. Those that do reach the stomach are usually killed by the HYDROCHLORIC ACID and PEPSIN. However, some do survive to cause illnesses, like TYPHOID or CHOLERA.
– Large numbers of pathogens are BREATHE in through the NOSE from the surrounding air, however few reach the lungs.
– The NASAL PASSAGES act as a complicated filtering system, lined with hairs that trap many pathogens. In addition MUCOUS MEMBRANES that line the air passages secrete sticky mucous that traps pathogens.
– SNEEZING also expels pathogens out of the nasal passage.
– Pathogens that do not reach the breathing tubes become trapped in mucous secretions. In addition CILIA of the cells that line the air tubes sweep the mucous trapped pathogen back to the throat where they are swallowed and then destroyed by the hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach.
– However, some pathogens do survive and cause illnesses like COLDS, PNEUMONIA, and INFLUENZA.

– Once the pathogens are inside the body the other defense mechanism, the defenses of the immune system, began to work to fight the invading pathogens.
– Since theses immune defenses do not target specific pathogens, they are called non-specific immune defenses. The include PHAGOCYTES and INTERFERONS.
– Phagocytes are cells that engulf and consume invaders. They are the immune system’s first line of defense.
– Among the phagocytes are MACROPHAGES and NEUTROPHILS; two types of white blood cells that engulf(phagocytize) invading pathogens/microorganisms.
– Some macrophages stay in the spleen and lymph nodes, where they engulf any invader that passes their way.
– Other macrophages and neutrophils travel through the body searching for invaders.
– INFLAMMATION is one of the non-specific defenses. Redness, warmth and swelling occur at the area of an injury or infection. These symptoms mean that blood vessels have dilated to increase the blood flow to the affected area. Chemicals releases from the damaged platelets attract the traveling macrophages and neutrophils. These cells gather at the site of the infection and ingest the foreign pathogen/bacteria. The phagocytes ingest large numbers of bacteria and are themselves killed by the BACTERIAL TOXINS (poisons). The accumulated dead bodies of macrophages and neutrophils form PUS.
– Interferon is protein secreted by infected cells that limit the harmful effects of viruses.

– Specific immune defenses are specialized responses that target specific invading pathogens.
– The circulatory, lymphatic and other systems coordinate to target specific pathogens.
– The cells of the immune system are able to recognize and act upon invading microorganisms that enter the body.
– Any foreign substance or microorganism that causes the immune system to react is called an ANTIGEN.
– Antigens are usually proteins, glycoproteins (carbohydrates-protein molecules), or carbohydrates, that are carried on the cell membranes of invading microorganisms.
– Both T-CELLS and B-CELLS have the ability to tell the difference between your cells and those that don’t belong to you. All cells contain antigens, molecules that allow the lymphocytes to tell the difference. Cells that are yours contain SELF-ANTIGENS and foreign cells contain NON-SELF -ANTIGENS.

– Lymphocytes are the immune systems second line of defense.
– Lymphocytes are found in high concentrations in the lymphatic system; when they are inactive they are stored in the white pulp of the liver.
– There are 2 types of lymphocytes; T-CELLS and B-CELLS. Working together these two cells carry out a very organized approach to killing invaders, know as the IMMUNE RESPONSE.
– T-CELLS mature in the thymus and are transported through out the body, where they facilitate CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY by targeting and neutralizing pathogens. (Cell-mediated immunity occurs when phagocytes engulf and partially digest a pathogen, and then the T-cells recognize and destroy the phagocyte and the pathogen).
– B-CELLS facilitate ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY by producing defensive proteins called ANTIBODIES, which circulate throughout the body to target and destroy pathogens.
– B-cells carry specific antigen-recognition proteins. Each cell is a specialist, carrying only one kind of recognition protein.
– When a newly produced B-cell meets with a matching antigen, the B-cell is activated and the antigen attaches to the recognition site on the membrane of the B-cell and immobilizes it, then the macrophages and neutrophils ingest it.

– The immune response is triggered by the release of an ALARM CHEMICAL called INTERLEUKIN-1 by the macrophage white blood cells.
– This alarm chemical causes the response of a type of lymphocyte called the HELPER T-CELL. The helper T-cell does not actively kill pathogens in the body, but it stimulates two additional lymphocytes, KILLER T-CELLS and B-CELLS to respond.
– Killer T-cells travel through the blood and lymph fluid and attack and destroy pathogens.
– Killer T-cells are able to recognize foreign substances when the receptor proteins found on their cell membrane match the pathogen. The body produces killer T-cells with many different kinds of receptor proteins.
– The B-cells produce a substance called an ANTIBODY that circulates in the blood and lymph until it attached to a foreign substance, marking it for destruction by the T-cells.
– The B-cells also remember the pathogens that attack the body. These MEMORY B-CELLS will quickly initiate the cellular defense against the pathogen that has previously entered the body. This quick response to a pathogen entering the body a second time lessens the dangerous effects of the pathogen. This is called the ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE.

– Having a fever, as long as it doesn’t get too high (103 degrees F or above) is helping your body regain its health.
– When pathogens are recognized by white blood cells, they alert the anterior hypothalamus in the brain, to increase the normal body temperature.
– Raising the body’s temperature helps fight against invading pathogens. Many pathogens grow slower in high temperatures; allowing the body more time to build up its defenses.
– Raising the body’s temperature increases the body’s metabolic rate. This increases the rate of white blood cell production and speeds up the repair of damaged tissue.
– When the temperature of an adult raises to 103 degrees F, damage to the body may begin to take place, medication should be used at this point to bring the fever down.

– Immunization is the ability to resist the attack of a particular disease-producing pathogen.
– Immunity to one type of pathogen does not give a person immunity to other types of pathogens.
– ACTIVE IMMUNITY happens when an antibody is produced by a person’s own body cells.
– Active immunity can happen in two ways; by getting the disease and recovering from it or by being immunized against the disease.
– Immunization that produce active immunity involves the injection of weakened disease pathogens that stimulate antibody production, but produce only mild symptoms or none at all.
– Active immunization is long-lasting because the body cells continue to produce the antibodies.
– An injection of GAMMA GLOBULINS can give a person temporary immunity against certain specific diseases. This means that a person has borrowed antibodies in the blood and not those made by their own cells. This kind of immunity is called PASSIVE IMMUNITY. It lasts only as long as the antibodies last; when they are used up the immunity is gone.

Integumentary System

The Integumentary System consist of the skin and its derivatives; hair, glands, nails and nerve endings.

– Skin covers the body and provides a physical barrier that protects underlying tissues from physical and bacteria invasion, dehydration and ultraviolet light.
– Certain cells of the epidermis play a role in the immune system, warding off invaders.
– Under conditions of high temperature or strenuous exercise, glands produce sweat and the evaporation of the sweat provides a cooling mechanism for the body.
– Under conditions of low temperature, the production of sweat decreases.
– Sweat also contributes to excretion. Along with heat and some water, it removes a small amount of salts and several organic compounds.
– The dermis contains an extensive network of blood vessels that carry up to 10% of the total blood flow in a resting adult.
– Nerve endings that detect temperature, touch, pressure and pain are located in the skin.
– Synthesis of vitamin D begins with the activation of a precursor in the skin by ultraviolet light.
– This compound is modified and becomes CALCITRIOL (the most active form of vitamin D).
– Calcitriol aids in the absorption of calcium in food from the digestive tract into the blood.

The skin consists of different tissues that are joined to perform specific functions.

It is the largest organ of the body, in surface and weight.

The skin is composed of 2 parts; the EPIDERMIS and the DERMIS.
– The epidermis is the outer, thinner portion of the skin. It is usually 4 to 5 layers thick, depending on its location.
– Its deepest layer is a single layer of stem cells capable of continuous cell division.
– It contains the cells that are sensitive to touch.
– Some of the cells produce KERATINOCYTES that keep moving up the skin layers.
– While these cells are moving up to the skin’s surface, MELANIN is taken in by the cells. The cells lose their nucleus and other organelles, they lose their ability to carry on vital metabolic reactions and eventually die.
– Some of the stem cells move down in the skin and become oil and sweat glands and hair follicles.
– The most superficial layer of the epidermis, the STRATUM CORNEUM, is composed of about 30 rows of flat, dead cells, completely filled with KERATIN. This layer is shed continuously and replaced by cells from the lower layers.
– It serves as an effective layer against light, heat waves, bacteria and many chemicals.
– It takes about 2 to 4 weeks for the epidermal cells to make their migration from the lowest layer to the skin’s surface.
– The epidermis is composed of layers of STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (one of the four main types of tissue in the body).
– The epidermis contains 4 types of cells: KERATINOCYTES, MELANOCYTES, LANGERHANS CELLS and MERKEL CELLS.
– Keratinocytes make up 90% of the epidermal cells.
– They produce the protein KERATIN which is a tough, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue from heat, microbes and chemicals.
– Keratinocytes also release a waterproofing sealant for the skin.
– Melanocytes make up 8% of the epidermal cells.
– They produce the pigment MELANIN, which contributes to skin color and absorbs ultraviolet light.
– Once inside the cells the melanin granules cluster to form a protective veil over the nucleus of the cell on the side of the skin’s surface, this shields the DNA(genetic material) from ultraviolet damage.
– Langerhans Cells make up a small portion of the epidermal cells and participate in the immune responses against microorganisms.
– Merkel Cells are the least numerous of the epidermal cells.
– They are located in the deepest layer of the epidermis, where they are in contact with nerve cells and function in the sensation of TOUCH.

– The dermis is an inner, thicker layer of connective tissue.
– The connective tissue of the dermis has collagen, elastic fibers, blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles embedded in it.
– The combination of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis provide the skin with STRENGHT and ELASTICITY(the ability to stretch).
– Nerve endings sensitive to COLD are found in and just below the dermis.
– Nerve endings sensitive to HEAT are located in the middle and outer dermis.
– The dermis is attached by fibers to a layer called the SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER, which isn’t considered a part of the skin.
– The subcutaneous layer serves largely as a storage depot for fat and contains larger blood vessels that supply the skin.
– The subcutaneous layer is attached to the underlying tissue.

– MELANIN, CAROTENE and HEMOGLOBIN are the 3 main pigments responsible for skin color.
– Melanin is a brown-black pigment found mostly in the epidermis and causes variations in skin tone from pale yellow to black.
– Since the number of melanocytes is about the same for all races, differences in skin color are due to the amount of pigment the melanocytes produce and disperse to the keratinocytes.
– ALBINISM is an inherited inability of an individual of any race to produce melanin. Melanin is absent in their skin, hair and eyes, they appear white.
– VITILIGO is the partial or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin, it produces irregular white spots.

– Hairs are growths of the epidermis.
– Hair occurs all over the body, except on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
– Genetics and hormones determine the thickness and pattern of distribution of hair.
– Normal hair loss is between 70 and 100 hairs per day.
– The main function of hair is PROTECTION. Hair guards the scalp from injury and the sun’s harmful rays.
– Eyebrows and eyelashes protect the eyes from foreign particles. Hairs in the nostrils and ears have a similar function.
– Hair also aids in sensing light touch. Touch receptors associated with hair follicles are activated when a hair moves even slightly.
– Each hair is composed of columns of dead, keratinized cells welded together.
– The SHAFT is the superficial portion of the hair that projects from the surface of the skin.
– The shaft of straight hair is round in cross-section and curly hair is oval.
– The ROOT is the part of the hair that penetrates into the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous layer.
– The HAIR FOLLICLE surrounds the root.
– Around each hair follicle are nerve endings that are sensitive to touch.
– Smooth muscle (ARRECTOR PILI) is attached to the hair follicle. When these muscles contract under conditions of fright or cold, the hair pulls into an upright position. This is what happens when your “hair stands on end” or you get “Goosebumps”.
– HAIR COLOR is related to the pigment melanin. The melanin is formed by the melanocytes and then passed into the hair.
– Dark colored hair is mostly true melanin.
– Blond or red hair is due to melanin mixing with iron and sulfur.
– Gray hair is the progressive loss of the enzyme responsible for the formation of melanin.
– White hair is the result of the accumulation of air bubbles in the hair shaft.

There are 4 types of glands associated with the skin; oil, sweat, ceruminous and mammary glands.
– Oil glands vary in size depending on where they are located.
– They are larger in the skin of the breast, face, neck and upper chest.
– They are smaller in most of the trunk of the body and the extremities.
– They are absent on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
– Oil glands are usually connected to hair follicles. These glands produce an oily substance (SEBUM) that contains fats, cholesterol, proteins, inorganic salts and pheromones.
– Sebum has several functions including, coating the surface of the hair to keep it from becoming dry and brittle, it prevents excessive evaporation of water from the skin, it keeps the skin soft and supple and it inhibits the growth of bacteria.
– There are 3 to 4 million sweat glands in the human body.
– They empty their secretions on to the skin’s surface
– They fall into 2 categories: ECCRINE and APOCRINE.

– Eccrine glands are simple, coiled, tubular and more common than apocrine glands.
– They begin functioning soon after birth.
– They mainly produce sweat or perspiration. They are found in the skin of the forehead, palms and soles.
– SWEAT is a mixture of water, salts, urea, uric acid, amino acids, sugar, lactic acid and ascorbic acid.
– Its main function is to help regulate body temperature by providing a cooling mechanism. As sweat evaporates, large quantities of heat energy leave the body’s surface. It also plays a small role in eliminating waste.

– Apocrine glands begin functioning at puberty.
– They are simple, coiled, tubular glands. They are located in the subcutaneous layer and their excretory ducts open into the hair follicle.
– Their secretion is more thick and sticky than sweat, due to the addition of lipids and proteins.
– These glands are located in the armpits, pubic region and pigmented regions of the breast.

– Ceruminous glands are modified sweat glands located in the subcutaneous layer of the external ear.
– They produce a waxy substance that acts as a sticky barrier, preventing foreign substances from entering the ear.
– Are also modified sweat glands.

– Nails are plates of tightly packed, hard keratinized cells of the epidermis.
– The NAIL BODY is the visible portion of the nail.
– The NAIL ROOT is buried in a fold of skin.
– The epithelium underneath the nail root is called the NAIL MATRIX and is made up of cells undergoing mitosis to produce nail growth.
– Nails grow at various rates; the average nail grows about 1 millimeter per week.

The Skeletal System – Coordination of the Bones and Muscle (part 2 of 2)

Muscle tissue has 4 unique properties that allow it to function.
1. ELECTRICAL EXCITABILITY is the ability to receive and respond to stimuli (something that causes a response).
2. CONTRACTILITY is the ability to shorten and thicken in response to a stimulus.
3. EXTENSIBILITY is the ability to stretch(extend).
4. ELASTICITY is the ability to return to its original shape after contracting or extending.

Contractions allow the muscles to perform 3 important functions.
1. When muscles are integrated with bones and joints, they contribute to body movements like walking, running, grasping etc. Contraction of muscles helps the body stay in a stationary position and maintain posture.
2. Other muscles control movement without any attachment to bones or joints, like the heartbeat or contractions of the digestive tract.
3. A BYPRODUCT of muscle contractions is HEAT. This heat helps to maintain the body’s temperature. Involuntary contractions of skeletal muscles(SHIVERING) can increase the rate of heat production.

Humans have 3 major types of muscle: SKELETAL, SMOOTH and CARDIAC.
– Skeletal muscle accounts for between 40% and 50% of the body’s weight.
– Skeletal muscles are usually attached to the bones of the body. Some however are not attached to bone, like the muscles that allow you to open and close your eyelids.
– The muscle tapers at the end, forming a dense connective cord (TENDON) which attaches the muscle to the bone.
– There are about 600 skeletal muscles that mobilize the skeletal system.
– They control the voluntary actions of the body, like walking. They move the arms, legs, back, face, jaw etc.
– Skeletal muscles are categorized as either FLEXOR or EXTENDOR.
– When a FLEXOR muscle (like the biceps) contracts, it causes a joint to bend.
– When an EXTENDOR muscle (like the triceps) contracts, the joint straightens.
– Muscles shorten and pull.
– The biceps/triceps relationship is called an ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLE PAIR, because one muscle reverses the effects of the other.
– Skeletal muscles are known for the speed of their contractions.
– The muscle cell is cylinder shaped and can be long in length. It is often referred to as a MUSCLE FIBER because it runs the entire length of the muscle.
– Because of its length there are thousand of nuclei per cell.
– Skeletal muscle consists of bundles of MUSCLE FIBERS.
– Skeletal muscle has STRIPES or STRIATIONS (many dark lines) going across the cell surface when viewed under the microscope.
– Together, many skeletal muscle fibers form BUNDLES, which are wrapped in connective tissue to form muscles.

– Smooth muscle are found in the organs of the body.
– The most common function the smooth muscle is to squeeze (exert pressure) on the space inside the tube or organ it surrounds. Food is moved down the esophagus by the squeezing action of smooth muscle. Blood is pumped through the arteries with the aid of smooth muscle.
– They are found in the digestive tract, blood vessels and other internal organs.
– These muscles are usually not under voluntary control, the contract INVOLUNTARYLY. They are stimulated by the AUTOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
– Smooth muscle consist of spindle-shaped cells that contain their own nuclei.
– The fibers of smooth muscle are smaller that skeletal muscle.
– The cells form thin broad sheets of tissue.
– Smooth muscle cells do not have any striped or striations.
– Smooth muscle allow electrical impulses to travel from one smooth muscle to another, without the aid of nervous stimulation.
– Because of their structure, smooth muscle takes longer than skeletal muscle to trigger a contraction and longer for the contraction to subside.

– Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. It controls the beating of the heart.
– The muscle has striations, like skeleton muscle.
– Like smooth muscle it is under involuntary control and has a single, centrally located nucleus.
– The cells form rows of fibers.
– Cardiac muscle tissue needs a constant supply of oxygen, therefore the cytoplasm is more abundant and the cell’s mitochondria are larger and more plentiful.
– Unlike other muscle tissue, cardiac muscle cells are lined up end to end and are joined to each other by a dense band (INTERCALATED DISK).
– The intercalated dicks strengthen cardiac muscle tissue and help conduct the electrical impulse from one muscle fiber to another.
– When a single fiber is stimulated, all are stimulated, and they contract in a synchronous manner.
– Cardiac tissue contract independently of a nerve supply. Each heartbeat is started by self-activating electrical activity of the heart’s PACEMAKER, called the SINOATRAIL NODE (S-A NODE), located in the wall of the right atrium.
– Cardiac muscle remains contracted 10 to 15 times longer than skeletal muscle.

Muscle cells contract either entirely or not at all.

When a muscle receives a stimulus, the response or how strong the muscle contracts depends on the number of muscle cells stimulated. And this all depends on the strength of the initial stimulus.

By increasing the stimulus, more muscle fibers will contract, which is the MAXIMAL STIMULUS. After reaching a maximal stimulus, any increase will not cause a stronger muscle contraction.

When a muscle is stimulated, a certain base level of electricity is necessary to produce a contraction, after this contraction, it takes a brief break for the muscle to contract and then relax before it can contract again.

The time taken to contract is the CONTRACTION PERIOD and the time taken to relax before the muscle can contract again is the RELAXATION PERIOD.

The amount of time from when the initial stimulus is administered until the contraction begins is called the LATENT PERIOD.

The latent, contraction and relaxation periods together make up a muscle twitch.

When a muscle is not allowed to relax completely before being stimulated again, the next contraction stimulate by the same electrical input will have a stronger response.

The energy required for muscle contraction is ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is stored in the muscles until needed.

The storage of ATP in muscles can be depleted in seconds.

A high-energy compound (Phosphocreatine) in muscle fibers converts ADP to ADT and provides additional energy for muscle contractions.

Once that is used up, GLYCOGEN in the skeletal muscle and liver is broken down to GLUCOSE, which will provide energy for several minutes of activity.

Once the glycogen supply has been used up, muscles break down fat to provide the energy to resynthesize ATP.

The fine structure of a muscle fiber controls contractions.

A muscle fiber is made up of a bundle of finer fibers called MYOFIBRILS.

A single myofibril is composed of smaller units called SARCOMERES, which are the pieces that contract in muscle tissue. Sarcomeres are arranged in a single file along the length of the myofibrils.

In the sarcomeres are alternating rows of thin (ACTIN PROTEIN) and thick (MYOSIN PROTEIN) FILAMENTS.

The thin filaments are attached to two vertical bands of thick protein called the Z LINES. A Z line marks the boundary between sarcomeres.

Muscles contract due to a SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM. When the thick and thin filaments slide past each other, the Z lines of the sarcomeres are pulled together.

When the sarcomeres contract (pull closer together), the myofibrils also contract, causing the contraction of the muscle finer.

The Skeletal System (part 1 of 2)

The human skeleton is made up of 2 types of connective tissue: bone and cartilage.

The primary purpose of the skeleton is to carry the weight and maintain the shape of the body, protect and support the internal organs, and provide an area of support where muscles can attach for movement to occur.

The skeleton is strong enough to absorb reasonable amounts of shock without fracturing, and at the same time it is flexible and light enough to allow movement.

Skeletal bones move in response to muscles that work like levers. Bones act as levers to which muscles are attached. When the muscles contract the bones produce movement.

At birth, the human body is made up of 270 bones, due to the fusion of separate bones; the mature skeleton has only 206 bones.

There is considerable difference between the male and female skeletons. The bones of the male are generally larger and heavier than those of the female. The ends of the bones are thicker in relation to the shafts in males. The points of attachment of muscles are larger in males due to the fact that males have larger muscles. The pelvic girdle of females is designed to allow the birth of children.

Bone replaces itself throughout adult life. Worn or injured bone is removed and replaced by new tissue.

Bone replaces itself at different intervals. The distal end (furthest from the center) of the femur is replaced about every 4 months; however the bone in parts of the shaft of the femur may not be completely replaced during a lifetime. This process allows the bone to serve as the body’s storage are for calcium.

Bones are the major site of mineral storage, particularly calcium and phosphorous, these minerals can be distributed to other parts of the body on demand.

– Long bones are longer than they are wide and they are slightly curved for strength.
– A bone that is curved is structurally able to absorb the stress of the body at several points so the stress will be evenly distributed.
– The straight bone would not be able to evenly distribute the weight of the body and the bone would break more easily.
– Long bones are shaped like tubes with rounded ends that are designed to fit into other bones to form JOINTS.
– The ends of long bones are filled with spongy bone; this makes them light but strong.
– Long bones can be found in the thigh, lower leg, toes, arms, forearms and fingers.
– Short bones are cubed-shaped and nearly equal in length and width.
– They are a spongy bone except at the surface, where there is a thin layer of compact bone.
– Short bones can be found in the wrist and ankle.
– Flat bones are usually thin and are composed of several plates of compact bone over a layer of spongy bone.
– They provide considerable protection and provide ample area for muscle attachment.
– cranial bones, the sternum, ribs and the scapula are flat bones.
– Irregular bones have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the other 3 categories.
– The vertebrae and some of the facial bones are irregular.

Most of the human skeleton is living tissue that is growing constantly.

The bones are made up of cells embedded in a matrix.

About 20% of living bone is water. The remaining 80% is a MATRIX that consists of minerals (tri-calcium phosphate, magnesium and other elements) and protein (collagen fibers).

When the minerals are deposited, the bone becomes OSSIFIED (hardened).

The protein fibers and the minerals make up the non-living matrix of the bone.

Bone is not a completely solid substance; bone has some spaces between the hard components.

The spaces provide channels for blood vessels that supply bone cells with nutrients and make bones lighter.

The bone matrix has a network of canals called HAVERSAIN CANALS in it. These canals allow blood vessels and nerve fibers to extend into interior bone.

Bone also contains many living cells and blood vessels that provide the movement of nourishment into the cell and the removal of waste from the cells.

The surface of the bone is covered by a tough membrane called the PERIOSTEUM.

The periosteum has many microscopic blood vessels that provide nourishment to the bone.

Living bone cells are found in small spaces in the mineral matrix of the bone. There are 3 types of living bone cells and each has a special function.

– Osteoblasts repair broken bones and produce new bone material.
– They also secrete the mineral and protein compounds that form the matrix.
– Osteoclasts are the “bone breakers”. They are able to dissolve pieces of bone that are in the way of “efficient” skeletal design.
– The destructive work is often followed by the constructive work of the osteoblast in the rebuilding of the bone.
– Osteocytes function as the “caretaker” of the bone tissue. They provide coverall maintenance of the bone.

Depending on the size and distribution of the spaces in the bone, the regions of the bone can be categorized as COMPACT or SPONGY.
– Compact bone is dense tissue (thicker) with few spaces.
– It is deposited in a layer over the spongy bone tissue.
– Compact bone tissue provides protection and support and helps long bones resist the stress of weight placed on them. It can resist considerable weight and stress.
– Spongy bone is less dense and contains many large spaces. It is filled with soft tissue called RED MARROW, which makes red blood cells and helps the body store fat.
– Red bone marrow consists of immature blood cells, called STEM CELLS, fat cells, and macrophages.
– Red marrow produces red blood cells, some white blood cells and platelets.
– Spongy bone make up most of the short, flat and irregularly shaped bones. It also makes up most of the ends of long bones.

– Cartilage is both firm and flexible, unlike bone that is harder and more brittle.
– Cartilage is usually located where firmness and flexibility are needed, like joints, the nose, the ears, trachea, and larynx and in between the vertebrate.
– Cartilage is made up of circular cells embedded in a rubbery matrix that has supporting fibers.
– During the development of the skeletal system of humans, embryos begin with a cartilaginous skeleton. Gradually most of the cartilage is replaced by bone.

The axial skeleton includes the bones that lie along the longitudinal axis. It provides the protective functions of the skeleton.

– All of the bones of the head make up the skull. There are 2 regions of the skull; the CRANIUM and the FACE.
– The skull is made up of 22 flat and irregular shaped bones.
– There are 8 bones in the cranium; their function is to protect the brain.
– The facial region is made up of 14 bones and it protects the eyes, nose, mouth and ears.
– The SINUSES are air space in the facial bones. They aid in reducing the weight of the skull.
– The 3 bones in the middle ear (the HAMMER, the ANVIL, and the STIRRUP) function in
transmitting sound to the inner ear and are the smallest bones in the body.

– The vertebral column has 26 bones that are called VERTEBREA.
– At birth the vertebral column has 33 bones.
– 5 SACRAL VERTEBREA. The 5 sacral bones fuse into one large triangular bone, called the SACRUM, located at the back of the pelvis.
– 4 CAUDAL/COCCYGEAL (tail) VERTEBREA. The 4 coccygeal bones fuse into a single COCCYX.
– The vertebrae column is called the BACKBONE; it is made flexible by the cartilage and ligaments that join the individual vertebrae.
– This flexibility allows movement of the head and the trunk of the body.
– DISC of CARTILAGE separate the individual vertebrae. The disc prevent friction due to the rubbing of the bones and act as shock absorbers.

– Just below the neck is the THORACIC BASKET (12 pair of ribs attached to the vertebrae column).
– The 1st 10 pair of ribs are attached to the STERNUM (BREASTBONE) by cartilage strips.
– The 11th and 12th pair of ribs are called the FLOATING RIBS, because they are attached to the vertebrae column, but not to the sternum.
– The loose connections of the ribs to the vertebrae and the flexible cartilage connections at the sternum allow the ribs to move when the lungs are inflated.

– Appendicular is the adjective of the word appendage.
– An appendage is an attachment to a main body or structure. Arms and legs are attached to the axial skeleton.
– The moveable limbs attached to the axial skeleton make up the appendicular skeleton.
– The appendicular skeleton forms a system of levers, providing movement and dexterity.
– The arms and hands, the legs and feet, and the bones of the shoulders and the pelvis make up the appendicular skeleton.
– The sites where the arms and legs are attached to the axial skeleton are bones referred to a GIRDLES.
– The PECTORAL(shoulder)GIRDLE, 2 SCAPULA(shoulder blades) and 2 CLAVICAL(collar bones) hold the arm to the axial skeleton.
– The legs are attached to the PELVIC GIRDLE, which is formed by the fusion of 3 bones. The ILIUM, the ISCHIUM, and the PUBIS on each side of the midline of the body.
– The PELVIC GIRDLE receives the weight of the upper body from the vertebral column and transfers it to the leg bones or the surface when seated.
– The arched shape of the foot allow it to withstand tremendous force and weight.

– The fused bones creating the CRANUIM make up the SKULL.
– The lower TEETH are located in the MANDIBLE(jaw).
– The collar bone is the CLAVICAL.
– The wings in the upper back are called SCAPULAS.
– The bone connecting all of the RIBS in the middle of the chest is the STERNUM.
– The ribs are connected in the back to the VERTEBRAL COLUMN(backbone), which is composed of VERTEBREA.
– The vertebrae in the neck are called CERVICAL VERTEBREA; THORACIC VERTEBREA join with the ribs; LUMBAR VERTEBREA descends from the thoracic vertebrae to the pelvis; and together the fused bones in the PELVIS make up the SACRUM.
– The COCCYX(tail) is made up of CAUDAL VERTEBREA.
– The bone in the upper arm is the HUMERUS and the two bones in the lower arm are the RADIUS and ULNA.
– The wrist bones are the CARPALS.
– At the base of the fingers(the palm of the hand) are the METACARPALS.
– The smaller bones extending out to the fingertips are the PHALANGES.
– The largest bones in the body are the FEMURS, the thigh bone connects the upper legs with the pelvis.
– The upper and lower legs meet at the KNEE covering that is the kneecap, or PATELLA.
– Each lower leg has two long bones, the TIBIA and FIBULA.
– The little bones in the ankles are the TARSALS, that connect to the METATARSALS
– The bones extending into the toe tips are called PHALANGES.

The site where 2 bones come together is called a JOINT.

Most joints allow the bones to move at the connection point.

Some joints are immovable. They are usually bones that are fused together, like the SUTURES located between the skull bones.

Moveable joints are held together with LIGAMENTS, a strong, flexible tissue that connects bone to cartilage.

The more mobile the joint is, the weaker it is.

– No movement is allowed by this type of joint.
– Suture joints in the skull are an example.
– Bones meeting at these joints have some ability to move.
– The spaces between the vertebrae in the back are an example.
– Bones meeting at these joints have the possibility of great movement.
– BALL and SOCKET JOINTS (found in the shoulder), HINGE JOINT (a back and forth movement joint, like the knees and elbows), and PIVOT JOINTS (a rotating joint, like the forearm at the elbow) are all examples of freely moving joints.

Circulatory System – The Lymphatic System (part 4 of 4)

The human body has a second circulatory system, a system of vessels that transport a fluid called LYMPH throughout the body.

The capillaries are responsible for most of the diffusion of materials into the surrounding tissue; the small size of the capillaries can cause the loss of plasma into the body.

The lymphatic system drains the fluids that weren’t reabsorbed from the blood capillaries.

The lymphatic system is a series of vessels located throughout the body that help collect the plasma fluid/tissue fluid or LYMPH (a protein-containing fluid) that has leaked out of the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. The Lymphatic system brings this fluid back into the bloodstream.

Lymph differs from plasma in that it has 50% fewer proteins and it does not contain red blood cells.

The LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES are located in the spaces between cells where the fluid accumulates.

The lymph capillaries are slightly larger and more permeable then the blood capillaries.

The lymph capillaries merge into larger lymph capillaries called LYMPHATICS, which resemble veins but have thinner walls and more valves.

Lymph fluids are propelled through the body by capillary pressure, muscle action, intestinal movements and respiratory movements. These movements squeeze the lymph vessels and push the fluid along.

Lymph moves in only one direction, TOWARD THE HEART.

In addition to returning fluids back to the bloodstream, the lymphatic system is also the way that fat enters the bloodstream from the small intestine. On the lining of the small intestine are hair-like extensions called VILLI that contain vessels called LACTEALS. The lacteals are part of the lymphatic system and they absorb fat from food.

EDEMA is the swelling of a body area (like the feet or legs) that results from inadequate draining of lymph from the body.

Edema may be caused by heart or kidney disorders, malnutrition or injury.

The lymphatic system contains many oval-shaped structures called LYMPH NODES or GLANDS that are made up of connective tissue that contain PHAGOCYTOTIC CELLS (cells that can ingest other particles).

Lymph nodes are filtering organs that clear the tissue fluids of bacteria and other foreign particles. They filter and process the lymph.

The lymph nodes return the waste they filter back to the blood, where they are carried to the lungs, kidneys and sweat glands that eliminate them from the body. These wastes are detoxified by the liver.

Lymph nodes act as a defense and are located in the head, face, neck, chest area, groin, pelvic and abdominal regions of the body.

Lymph nodes can become swollen when the body is fighting an infection (swollen glands in the neck are usually a sign of an illness).

The lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissue like the spleen, thymus and tonsils are sites where LYMPHOCYTES (white blood cells) are formed.

Circulatory System – The Heart (part 3 of 4)

Cells must be constantly supplied with the materials necessary for life. The blood in humans is the transport system of these materials and this system must be constantly moving materials to and from the cells.

The heart is a muscular pump and the major organ of the circulatory system. It keeps the blood moving in its’ constant motion.

The human heart is about the size of a clenched fist.

The heart lies in the chest cavity, behind the breast bone and slightly to the left.

The heart is a bundle of cardiac muscles specialized for rhythmic contractions and relaxations, also know as the HEARTBEAT.

The rate of the average heartbeat is 72 beats per minute. Over an average lifetime of about 70 years, the heart beats about 2.5 billion times and pumps 200 million liters of blood.

The heart re-circulates the entire volume of blood, about 5 liters, every minute.

The heart is a strong, muscular organ that has two sides and contains four chambers.

Both sides of the heart beat simultaneously.

The walls are thicker on the one side than on the other.

The upper chambers are called the ATRIA/ARTIUM. The atrium are thin-walled and receive the blood from the veins. They are the receiving chambers of the heart.

The lower chambers are called the VENTRICLES. The ventricles are larger and receive the blood from the atrium above it. They are the pumping chambers of the heart.

Each atrium is separated from the ventricles by a VALVE.

The atrium and ventricles on the right are separated from the left atrium and ventricles by a thick wall of muscle called a SEPTUM.

Blood leaves the ventricles and flows through arteries.

Blood flows one way through the heart with the help of valves. ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART, VEINS CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART.

The heart is a double pump.

– The right ventricle represents the 1st pump. It is the pump for the PULMONARY CIRCULATION.
– Blood that is low in oxygen returns from the upper and lower parts of the body and enters the right atrium of the heart and then the right ventricle.
– The right ventricle pumps the DEOXYGENATED blood into the PULMONARY ARTERIES that bring the blood to the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives up waste products, including carbon dioxide, which is exhaled.
– The blood returns from the lungs by way of the PULMONARY VEINS to the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. This begins the SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION, which carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

– The left side of the heart is the pump for the systemic circulation.
– Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium and then the left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts and pumps the blood through the largest artery in the body, the AORTA, to all parts of the body.
– The oxygenated blood passes through arteries that lead to smaller arteries, them to arterioles, then to capillaries, where oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other substances move from the blood to the cells.
– It is through the capillary walls that waste products, like carbon dioxide are picked up.
– Other substances such as nutrients and hormones enter the blood through the capillary walls.
– Due to the pumping action of the heart, blood is continuously circulating throughout the body, maintain the constant exchange of materials necessary for life to continue.
– The blood eventually returns to the right atrium of the heart to complete the cycle.

– The surface of the heart is covered with a number of small arteries and veins.
– Even though the heart has blood flowing through it internally all the time, it is unable to obtain the materials it needs from this blood.
– These small vessels are the CORONARY ARTERIES AND VEINS that carry blood full of oxygen and nutrients to the muscle fibers of the heart and remove waste from the heart tissue.
– These coronary vessels are essential for the health of the heart.
– A heart attack occurs when these vessels become blocked and do not allow the heart tissue to receive oxygen and nutrients.
– This causes death of the heart tissue and the chest pain associated with a heart attack.

Circulatory System – Blood Vessels (part 2 of 4)

Blood vessels are the highway system of the body.

They are tubular structures that transport blood throughout the body.

There are approximately 60,000 miles/100,000kilometers of blood vessels in the human body; this ensures that every cell is within diffusion distance from a capillary.

There are 5 different types of blood vessels:
1. Arteries
2. Arteriole
3. Capillaries
4. Venules
5. Veins

– Arteries are thick-walled blood vessels that carry blood, under high pressure from the heart out toward the extremities of the body.
– The blood in the arteries is usually under high pressure because the blood had just left the heart.
– The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart.
– As the arteries bring blood to the outer extremities of the body, they become smaller and smaller in diameter.

– The major arteries branch into smaller arteries, eventually becoming arterioles.
– These small blood vessels’ walls contract to control blood flow to the organs.
– The amount of blood that flows into a particular tissue depends on the diameter of the arterioles.
– If an organ needs oxygen the arterioles relax and the arterioles diameter increases in size, increasing the blood flow to that organ.
– The arterioles can also contract, reducing the diameter and therefore the blood flow when needed.

– Eventually blood vessels become the thickness of one cell. These very narrow blood vessels are call capillaries.
– While the blood moves through the capillaries, gases, hormones and other nutrients diffuse in and out of the blood and the surrounding tissue.
– Capillaries also collect the waste produced from the cells of surrounding tissue and brings them back toward the heart.
– Capillaries gradually increase in size, becoming larger vessels called venules.

– When several capillaries join, they form veins called venules.
– Venules are very small blood vessels that allow blood to return from the capillary beds to larger blood vessels called veins.

– Veins are thin-walled vessels that bring the blood back to the heart.
– The lowest blood pressure is found in the veins.
– Most veins run upward or against gravity, therefore they rely on skeletal activity (like walking and breathing) and muscle contractions (in the legs and other parts of the body) to help move the blood back to the heart.
– Veins also have valves in them that allow the blood to move in one direction and prevent the back flow of blood.

Circulatory System – Blood (Part 1 of 4)

The Circulatory System is made up of 4 parts:
1. Blood
2. Blood Vessels
3. Heart
4. Lymphatic System

Blood is the only liquid connective tissue in the body.

Human adults have 4.7 liters of blood in their bodies.

Blood has roles in transport, regulation and protection.
– It transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat and waste.
– It is involved in the regulation of body temperature, PH and the water content of cells.
– The body is protected from blood loss through clotting and against disease by PHAGOCYTIC WHITE BLOOD CELLS and ANTIBODIES.

– Plasma makes up 55% of the blood.
– It is a clear; straw-colored liquid, which is mostly water.
– It is the bloods SOLVENT (able to dissolve substances).
– It transports nutrients, waste products of metabolism, respiratory gases and hormones.
– There are 3 main PLASMA PROTEINS:
– Is the smallest and most numerous protein.
– It helps recover water that has been lost.
– It transports some of the steroid hormones.
2. IMMUNOGOBULIN (antibodies)
– Aids the immune system by attacking bacteria and viruses.
– Other globulins help in the transport of iron, lipids and fat-soluble vitamins.
– It plays an essential role in the clotting of blood, by providing the necessary protein network.
– Various ions act as solutes in plasma; they play key roles in osmotic balance, PH buffering and the regulation of membrane permeability.

Blood cells make up about 45% of the blood.

There are 3 main types of blood cells:
– They transport oxygen to all cells.
– The oxygen-carrying protein HEMOGLOBIN is the pigment that gives blood its red color.
– They are the simplest cells in the body; mature red blood cells lack a nucleus, ribosomes and mitochondria.
– They are also the most numerous cells in the body; 5 million/ml of blood.
– About 2.5 million are made every second in the red bond marrow.
– Mature cells are flattened and disc-shaped with a central depression.
– They are non-reproducing sacks of oxygen binding hemoglobin.
– The hormone, ERYTHROPOIETIN, triggers transformation of skin cells in the marrow to produce red blood cells.
– After circulating for 3 to 4 months in the blood, red blood cells are engulfed by liver and spleen SCAVENGER CELLS.

– They contain a nucleus.
– Most live only a few days, although some, particularly LYMPHOCYTES can live for several months or longer.
– During infections white blood cells may only live for a few hours.
– The shape of their nuclei and the staining properties of their granules distinguish white blood cells from each other.
– The number and type of white blood cells can indicate a person’s health. Most infections stimulate an increase in circulating white blood cells.
– There are 5 classes of white blood cells:
– Are active in PHAGOCYTOSIS (the engulfing of particles by phagocytes); ingesting bacteria and cellular debris.
– Certain chemicals released by bacteria and inflamed tissue attract the white blood cells to the site.
– After engulfing the bacteria, neutrophils lysozymes are released that destroy the bacteria.
– Strong oxidants are then released, like peroxide and proteins called DEFENSINS that have antibiotic activity.
– Monocytes arrive after the neutrophils and enlarge to become macrophages, which clean up cellular debris and bacteria after an infection.
– They enter tissue fluid from the capillaries and release enzymes to combat allergic reactions.
– Intensify the inflammatory response when they enter the tissue from the capillaries.
– They are the major combatants in the immune response.
– They are the B-CELLS, T-CELLS and the natural killer cells.
– These cells are active in fighting infections caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi.
– They are also responsible for transfusion reactions, allergies and the rejection of transplanted organs.

– They are the small cell-like fragments that come from special white blood cells, called MEGAKARYOCYTES.
– They have no nucleus and live for about 5 to 9 days.
– Aged and dead platelets are removed by macrophages in the liver and spleen.
– Platelets release chemicals in blood clotting.

Humans have highly individualized blood that is credited to proteins and other genetically determined factors located on the surface of red blood cells and the plasma bathing the red blood cells.

The main types of blood are A, B, AB, and O.

Transfusions of blood are possible only when the blood types of the donor and recipient are compatible.

If the blood types are not compatible, proteins in the plasma will recognize foreign antigens and respond by causing the cells to AGGLUTINATE (clump) which will block the small vessels.

Type AB is considered the UNIVERSAL RECIEPENT (this person can receive blood from any type in the ABO blood group).

Type O is considered the UNIVERSAL DONOR (this type of blood can be given to any blood type in the ABO blood group).


To stay alive the cells of an organism need proper nutrients, oxygen and it’s metabolic waste must be removed. This goal affects the organism’s interactions with its environment.

The component parts of any organism (whether it is one-celled or a human being) must work together to maintain a stable fluid environment that all of its cells require. There must be a relative consistency (a controlled sameness) of the organisms internal environment. This is the basic concept of Homeostasis.

Multicellular organisms must regulate their internal environment. Maintenance of a stable internal environment is critical to the well-being of an organism; regulatory mechanisms must be carefully controlled.

It is important that an organism keep its chemical processes occurring at the correct rate and time.

When living things are able to regulate these chemical processes precisely, they can maintain a stable internal environment.

HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL mechanisms help maintain, both physical and chemical aspects of an organisms internal environment within ranges that are favorable for cells to function.

1. SENSORY RECEPTORS: Cells that can detect stimulus (a change in the environment).
2. INTEGRATOR: The BRAIN processes the information about the stimulus and selects a response.
3. EFFECTORS: Carry out the response to the stimulus (MUSCLES&/or GLANDS)

FEEDBACK MECHANISMS are the controls that operate to keep chemical and physical aspects of the body within tolerable ranges.

A VARIABLE in the environment triggers the mechanism. A variable triggers change.

A POSITIVE FEEDBACK mechanism amplifies positive change.

in a NEGATIVE FEEDBACK mechanism, something alters the condition in the internal environment, and this triggers a response to reverse the altered condition.

Homeostasis is dependent upon positive or negative feedback mechanisms.